Wideband ‘RF System-on-Module’ designed for immediate prototype and quick module integration into final systems using industry standard connector
Allows customers focus on their own areas of differentiation
Open source reference designs, and application examples MATLAB®, Simulink®, ADI Drivers(Linux, No-OS)
Uses in Cellular(TDD + FDD), Radar, Portable Defense and Instrumentation
This talk will discuss the implementation of a small but expandable phased array system designed for direction finding. Specifically, the problem of RF phase coherency will be addressed and a solution provided for a practical implementation using readily available software and hardware. Results from a performance evaluation for the direction finding algorithm and associated phased array will be presented. Overall this talk will focus on the a general framework for direction finding and necessary hardware requirements.
AM-PM is an important nonlinear effect shown in nonlinear transistors which requires careful treatment
in transistor modeling. This is especially true when the models are used in high efficiency amplifier
designs such as Doherty amplifier. In this proposal, we intend to discuss the AMPM effect in GaN HEMT
transistors and demonstrate several example modeling results which accurately capture the AMPM
behavior under large signal loadpull conditions.
This talk will detail recent advances in high power GaN pallets for radar applications including Gate Pulsing and Sequencing circuitry for automatic biasing, maximizing efficiency and minimizing transmitted noise. Temperature compensation and VSWR mismatch protection (crucial for GaN pallets) will also be described. The talk will be illustrated with examples.
Next generation broadband content delivery places additional pressure on network infrastructure performance. For cable markets, the new DOCSIS 3.1 standard provides substantial boost in bandwidth. To best utilize, new fiber-deep architectures have been proposed needing higher output from RF amplifiers at less power. DPD techniques have been pursued with good results on moderate bandwidth systems. For broadband cable networks we show concurrently designing the output power amplifier together with a unique DPD routine achieves new levels of efficiency and performance. New design advances in broadband DPD and power amplifier technology can work concurrently to address stringent system and component requirements.
This presentation will demonstrate how a variety of output matching network topologies can be quickly synthesized using only a measured load-pull data set. This enables the designer to assess the tradeoffs of each topology, refine the performance goals if necessary, and move on to the stage of building prototypes. As such, network synthesis can be used to significantly streamline the design flow, and reduce time-to-market for PA designs.
Describes the development of a leadless SMT packaged internally matched 1600W transistor with a footprint of just 10 x 26 mm2, addressing the underlying desire for a,(Cheap Off the Shelf),COTS scalable approach to manufacturing eliminating the traditional metal flange package. This new High Power transistor packaging approach allowing the overall amplifier chain to be completely aligned with best commercial manufacturing practices eliminating all manual steps or custom engineering previously needed.The leadless SMT packaged 1600W is enabled by GaN transistor technology operates in the 1030-1090 MHz frequency band and achieves 1600W peak Output Power, with 21dB associated Gain and 75% Efficiency.
Presentation will illustrate the size, weight, and performance benefits of an optical transceiver product platform designed to deliver high speed data communications in harsh environments. This optoelectronic retrofit solution offers some of the industry’s smallest footprints and an adaptable, protocol agnostic system design.
The rapid change in space market dynamics has ushered in a new era for space based communications applications. The emergence of low-cost communication constellations, Cubesats, plus reduction in launch costs are some of the contributing factors. This puts additional requirements on silicon technology to be less susceptible to radiation artifacts that are part and parcel of space based systems. The technology needs to provide performance that is radiation tolerant with extended temperature range and also offer optimized reliability. This microapp outlines the challenges of utilizing the technology to meet the needs of today’s and tomorrow’s space based applications.
Demand for special PCB pad handling options in electronic simulation is high; As a result, unique new pad features, including a shunt configuration option, have been incorporated into advanced simulation models to simplify setups and ensure highest accuracy simulation in varying types of design environments.
A multi-technology design flow supporting multiple PDKs and circuit/EM co-simulation to model the acoustic filters (SAW or BAW) and multi-layer laminate package is required for comprehensive module analysis and optimization. However, the Si RFIC switch, LNA, and PA development is often done in Cadence using a Cadence Si PDK. By translating the Cadence PDK into one that can be simulated in NI AWR Design Environment and translating the design into a dynamic library that can be used alongside that PDK, designers are able to effectively co-simulate not only different technologies, but complex designs originally created in completely different environments.
Traditional spring-loaded contacting solutions for the production-line test of electronic components have several advantages over connector based contacting solutions, but with ever-increasing demands for frequency performance, such connections also have several drawbacks. We describe how to overcome these drawbacks and how to successfully use spring-loaded components for functional-testing of RF-applications.
Noise is the fundamental limit of a systems ability to discern a signal. In this microApp we look at some simulation tool enhancements to better understand noise we will introduce some new technologies for exploring noise as jitter in the time domain.
Frequency Sweep Testing using an Anritsu VNA comparing microstrip filters etched with ion beam milling technology against those etched with a chemical process reveals significant performance and repeatability differences. Ion beam etched circuits have a much higher likelihood of first pass success matching circuit design simulator specifications above X-band. Production costs and time to market are improved as a much greater percentage of ion beam etched circuits fall within target frequency parameters without the need for tuning adjustments. Cost is no longer an issue as process developments in ion milling have made ion beam etched circuits cost competitive.
In 5G, mmWave is a prerequisite for high data transfer and low latency. 5G applications, such as mmWave radars and wireless communications, need carefully chosen materials in radomes and other functional components to guarantee both mechanical and electrical requirements. PREPERM® is developed to address the requirements of RF applications offering consistent material performance in all conditions. In this study, we will present RF performance data up to 220 GHz as well as robustness in extreme environmental conditions. In addition, we will present industrial customer cases which highlight the importance of proper material selection.
For high frequency/high isolation applications, traditional PCB shields do not offer the shielding effectiveness required. Engineers often rely on machined housings for shielding products. Hybrid shields replace the need for costly machined housings. Hybrid shields are a fraction of the cost, weight and require less board space while offering similar performance.
PIM (Passive Inter-Modulation) is a form of interference which is a circuit or system property that can be very difficult to characterize. Many different devices, modules or systems can have their RF performance degraded due to PIM issues. This presentation will give an overview of the most influential variables associated with PIM performance, as it relates to PCB technology and high frequency circuit materials. The overview will be specific to PIM concerns for PCB antenna circuits used in base station applications, however the same principles can be applied to other RF PCB applications.
Phase Locked Loops (PLLs) provide frequency conversion in RF & Microwave Transceivers, or clocks in Digital systems. As specification requirements increase, correct PCB layout techniques are essential for maximizing performance. This paper examines various traces and components surrounding PLLs and gives recommendations on best practices for layout.
Instead of manually selecting discrete RLC components when building an RF PCB, VPS automatically replaces real-valued RLC parts in a design with the closest discrete vendor parts and performs a comparative simulation with accurate parasitic models to determine if the original specs can be met with minimum tolerance and cost requirements.
The JESD204 serial interface has become the protocol of choice for high speed converters. As resolution and speed has increased, demand for a more efficient interface has grown. The latest revision offers advantages in speed, size, and cost; keeping pace with the faster sampling rate of converters. JESD204C, a multi-gigabit serial data link between a converter and receiver, targets increased lane rates, improved payload efficiency, and improved robustness of the link. In addition, improvements in clarity of the specification were achieved while correcting errors and maintaining backward compatibility with 204B.
Using a new electromagnetic/circuit co-simulation capability based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the process of importing broadband circuit models into an electromagnetic simulation project, optimizing the overall design, and calculating important quantities such as S-parameters, radiation patterns, and system efficiency will be demonstrated.
Efficiency of full-wave simulations in WIPL-D software is dramatically increased by advanced GPU acceleration. Arbitrary number of GPUs is supported in all phases of EM simulation. Comparison with pure CPU calculations shows acceleration of 1-2 orders of magnitude. Dense matrix of 100k complex unknowns is solved in few minutes.
This presentation will highlight the use of commercial RF circuit design and antenna synthesis and optimization software to design a compact internet of things (IoT) dual-band Wi-Fi multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) array antenna. The talk will also describe how to determine the initial specifications, explore the design space, and obtain optimized antennas from the synthesis tool as well as how to import the antenna geometry and materials details into a circuit design environment to further explore and verify performance.
Phased array systems are quickly becoming a commodity and hence they must be designed efficiently to optimize the cost and time to market. The legacy methods of arriving at a rough design and spending a significant amount of time to get it working in the field are no more acceptable.
This presentation will discuss the commercial system simulation software design flow to design and analyze a 2x2 phased-array antenna with a T/R module operating in the 8-12 GHz frequency range. The T/R module is packaged using LTCC technology and includes an embedded MMIC PA and LNA, as well as several vendor models and passive components like filters. The design will highlight system-level characterization, the use of RF circuit design software for schematic entry and layout, as well as planar EM and 3D FEM tools for electromagnetic (EM) simulation of the interconnects and bondwire transitions.
Combining different solvers for simulating complex networks greatly increases computational efficiency. Mician recently included radiation boundary conditions in µWave Wizard's 3D-FEM solver, allowing for either using spherical wave expansion for simulating radiation into free space or absorbing boundary conditions combined with near-to-far-field transformation. Antennas of reasonable size, arbitrary shape and materials, radiating in arbitrary directions can be accurately simulated. Typical applications: Slotted waveguide antennas, dielectric rod and lens antennas, dielectric resonator antennas and small wire helical antennas with finite wire diameters. The latest solver addition also allows for simulating the impact of external geometries of horn antennas on radiation patterns.
This presentation examines the application requirements for different advanced driver assist systems (ADAS) functions and how they impact system waveforms and architecture. A review of radar basics will be followed by a more detailed look at a linear frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar example, antenna array designs, and capabilities in phased-array modeling for consideration in systems employing beam forming.
3D and electromagnetic analyses provide very complete simulation of circuit parasitics and interactions. Encrypted full-wave 3D EM simulation models have been developed by Modelithics for ANSYS HFSS using detailed component information. If the information is proprietary and/or unavailable, a “brick” model method has been developed with promising initial results.
The fast rigorous full-wave design and optimization of passive microwave components and antennas is demonstrated, fully utilizing the speed and flexibility of WASP-NET’s unique hybrid multiple solver combination. Design examples are filters, couplers, OMTs, polarizers, circulators, and combline, SIW, PCB, SSL structures, as well as antennas including feed-networks, such as shaped reflector antennas, slot-arrays, and phased microstrip and Vivaldi arrays. The importance for the design engineer is that accurate designs complying with desired specifications are efficiently achieved on the rigorous direct electro-magnetic (EM) level without the need for surrogate modelling and time consuming data transfer between different packages.
High-end Vector Network Analyzers have always been instruments with unrivaled accuracy and defined measurement uncertainty. During the last decade, general-purpose Vector Network Analyzers have morphed into precision instruments for most demanding measurements. This talk will describe architectural advances and engineering breakthroughs enabling unknown levels of accuracy for general-purpose instruments.
Copper Mountain Technologies’ VNAs are used for various test and measurement applications. A fundamental requirement of most test systems is to have a good RF coaxial cable. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on how to test a cable accurately using an ACM.
Power Sensors are a common tool around every RF and Microwave lab, but understanding what is being measured, and all the factors that influence the uncertainty (or accuracy) of a given measurement can be a confusing and overwhelming task. This tutorial will show how to overcome limitations of traditional sensors
Spatial and temporal resolution of thermoreflectance-based imaging has established it as an effective technique for thermal analysis of GaN HEMTs. We describe developments in this analysis technique to meet increased thermal challenges with these devices with focus on gaining better understanding of thermal behavior in the 2D electron gas channel.
New techniques to increase dynamic range of 4G/5G test requirement are shown. Useful Block diagrams of set-ups including real test data are presented.
Discussions of RF Detector ICs typically focus on input frequency range, input power range and input sensitivity. While these specifications are critical, less attention is given to output referred specifications such as output frequency response, output flatness vs input frequency, pulse response and output drive capability. In this Microapps session, we will focus on these RF detector specifications and how they impact the systems in which they are used.
AFR is used to rapidly de-embed, from helium to room temperature, the long coaxial transmission lines and microwave probes from a cryogenic, wafer-level prober. For many measurements, cryo-AFR eliminates manual movement of probes from calibration substrate to DUT at every temperature and frees valuable cold-stage space for larger sample wafers.
Many communication systems operate at very low levels (i.e. <-100 dBm). They are integrated in PCBs/enclosures where other systems can create EMI affecting signal reception. If noise level is very low/intermittent, the problem is hard to measure/locate.
Near-field scanners (150kHz-8GHz) can be useful in debugging self-interference and intra-equipment EMI problems.
Everyone is talking about 5G and higher signal bandwidth in microwave frequencies to increase data throughput. Various field trials help understanding the new environment. Component suppliers need to provide capable building blocks enabling 5G. This paper provides an overview of the relevant changes and trends to address them.
In this paper, we will discuss typical configuration of the beamformer IC in 5G system that includes power amplifier, low noise amplifier, phase shifter, and switch. We will also address test parameters of the IC such as phase alignment, non-linearity, and noise figure. Key considerations for testing such device, for example, signal routing, power handling, and signal conditioning will be discussed and finally we will introduce our solution with PNA-X and testset.
Emerging technologies like 5G operate anywhere from 28GHz-to-60 GHz. Delivering high volume, low cost devices at these frequencies is challenging, and so is testing. This paper presents a new approach to RF-Measurements that will simplify testing at these frequencies while still enabling complex features like Beam-Forming transmitters to be tested.
RF noise pollution is everywhere, and emerging Internet of Things is making things worse.
Various products with 802.11, Bluetooth, Lora, and other wireless standards are being added to products faster than people understand how to properly enable them. This session will show how to quickly test various products for unintended RF transmissions, as well as understanding what sort of noise may exist in your channel from other people in the same physical space.
Historically on-wafer microwave and millimeter-wave vector network analyzer device characterization has been a process requiring operator attention almost continuously. We will reveal recent enhancements to our probing systems that allow full automation of VNA calibration and device measurement.
Noise XT has developed a new Phase Noise Analyzer capable of measuring both Phase and Amplitude Noise with a blazing speed of 244,000 averages per second. Now all State of the Art oscillators can be measured during the manufacturing process in a matter of seconds improving final customer satisfaction.
Noise-Figure is key for low-noise amplifiers and low-noise receiver front ends. Results are used along with s-parameters, compression-characteristics and intermodulation-performance during all phases of design, verification, and production enabling decisions about performance vs. cost vs. yield. The desire is to make all measurements with a single connection to the device-under-test.
This paper will describe how RF designers use Load pull and Noise parameter extraction tools to design for millimetre wave applications. The 5G standard has yet to be finalized, yet device and power amplifier designers are tasked with testing these high frequency linear and non linear devices.
Phase coherent RF and microwave signals are required in many applications like massive MIMO, beamforming, radar, etc. In particular, phase stability between the signals is critical. Generating such signals in a reliable and repeatable manner has long been a challenge. A configuration for wideband phase coherent signal generation is presented.
For traditional wireless communication systems it is important to get an understanding of the wireless link. This requires the ability to test and understand system operation with an Over The Air (OTA) link, the various variables that come into play in defining acceptable system performance and exercising the system with various environmental variables. The reality of the channel impairment may not always be understood, apparent or overlooked in the theoretical model and consequently testing with a real OTA link is an important step to understanding the limitations of the system.
Spurious emission search is a demanding measurements of RF/microwave devices. We will review the basics of spurious measurements with spectrum analyzers and how parameters can affect the system performance. We cover traditional methods and introduce new techniques that provide better usability and speed, especially when searching low level spurious signals.
Upcoming 5G and massive MIMO system design now face challenging density constraints and increasing bandwidth demands. By utilizing an integrated RF sampling transceiver with four transmitters and four receivers, the overall system size is reduced. Moreover, through digital quadrature mixing, RF sampling transceiver technology eliminates quadrature image calibration, and therefore reduces software overhead and verification efforts. Lastly, the technology supports a new generation of bandwidth demands by providing up to 1GHz or more of instantaneous bandwidth.
High Power Solid State Microwave Generators are now available and offer many new capabilities that weren’t possible before with traditional sources. These key capabilities include: frequency agility including auto-tuning, sweep modes, complete and precise power control, phase control, and high speed pulse modulation; all in addition to improved reliability, safety, and the ability to customize system configuration.
Translation Loop Phase Locked Loops (PLLs), are a common architecture in Signal Generators, but are being increasingly used to meet the demands of 5G test systems. This paper outlines the benefits, challenges, and implementations of such systems to increase PLL performance beyond traditional systems that use feedback dividers.
This paper presents a novel tunable waveguide filter with almost constant bandwidth in all tuning ranges. This tunable filter is tuned by a single piece of metallic sheet which has some teeth on it. By controlling the depth of the teeth in the resonators the pass band can be changed.
How a single contiguous DC-40GHz Sextuplexer can be used to easily combine six different RF sources to a single output and conversely to divide a complex RF signal (comprised of multiple signals ranging from 0.5-40GHz) into six outputs. This is achievable with low losses of typically less than 1dB.
High harmonics can prevent phase lock, increase quadrature error, or mix with other signals to wreak havoc on system performance and designers. This presentation will use case examples to illustrate simple but effective, space saving methods that can be employed to block or significantly attenuate these troublesome harmonics.
A method for the design and construction of thin-film lumped-element microwave filters is presented. The resulting filters exhibit broad spurious-free stop-bands, small physical size, excellent amplitude and phase match, and high reliability due to their thin film on Alumina construction.
Extensive study on the use of aluminum nitride as an alternative to beryllium oxide. For the past few decades, BeO has been the main substrate material used.Although it is well suited, its dust particles are toxic. The Electronic industry is searching for environmentally friendly substrate materials to replace it.
Michael Steer is giving a George Ponchak type presentations describing how to prepare a paper for acceptance and publication. M.B.Steer@ieee.org They requested this MicroApps Presentation.
With millimeter wave 5G come new challenges in simultaneously achieving wide bandwidth, low distortion, low noise, and pristine EVM signal chains. The bar is higher for instrument manufacturers who desire performance at least 10 dB better than the equipment under test.
We will review the design of a novel DAC where the DAC and first buffer amplifier are co-packaged. The integration of the two devices allows for significant reduction in parasitics and optimal matching delivering unsurpassed bandwidth and flatness. The techniques described can be applied to other wideband, high performance signal-chain challenges including instrumentation, communications, and defense applications.
3GPP Release 15 establishes phase 1 of the 5G New Radio (NR) physical layer. The NR physical layer specifications establish key characteristics including allowable bands of operation, number of aggregated carriers, mechanisms for beamforming, waveform configuration, and even deployment scenarios.
In this presentation, we will share specific details regarding phase 1 of the 5G NR physical layer, and compare and contrast these details with the 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced standard. In addition, we will also share the current status and technical details of proposals currently being considered for phase 2 of the 5G NR specification.
New high frequency standards, including 5G, will require improved low cost methods to create high quality CW signals up to 80 GHz. This talk reviews the advantages and disadvantages of common frequency multiplication techniques with a focus on passive diode doublers and non-linear transmission lines. Important figures of merit are identified and compared.
Modern antennas utilize MIMO technology in order to meet consumer demands for high data rates. As such, throughput is a required design metric when evaluating one antenna design versus another and simulating device performance in a realistic scenario leads to shorter design cycles.
Automotive FMCW-radars operate between 76GHz and 77GHz. Up to 81GHz has become available in some countries. Distance-resolution is proportional to signal-bandwidth and manufacturers are developing FMCW-radars with wider bandwidths. Signal-linearity and chirp duration also determine performance and it is important to analyze all parameters including chirp-length, -rate, frequency deviation, etc.
This presentation will examine several different technologies associated with PTH (Plated Through Hole) via and the impact the via has on RF performance within a multilayer PCB (Printed Circuit Board). The test vehicle is a four copper layer circuit designed as a dual stripline and having multiple transitions of the signal conductor within the stripline structure. The signal transitions will be with PTH via’s and evaluating different design aspects. A summary will be given which shows the impact of signal via transition on return loss and impedance matching related to different signal-via transition designs.
FormFactor, Inc. is a recognized leader in RF/Microwave performance of analytic probes in our Infinity and ACP lines of probes. We also produce fully customized probe cards for on-wafer device production testing. We'll show a detailed performance comparison of these probing solutions across frequencies up to and above 80GHz.
With increasing data-rates, system-jitter-budgets get tighter. This calls for lower jitter limits of key components like clock sources and traditional scope-based-measurements get to their limits. We will look at modern ways to analyze the real jitter performance of clocks, even when the clock runs in spread spectrum clocking (SSC) mode.
Engineers have many capacitor technologies to choose from in their designs. Using the right technology is an important step in optimizing system performance while keeping SWaP at a minimum. This seminar highlights the industry's top options with their associated pros and cons.
In response to demands for high quality 1.0 mm connectors; Signal Microwave and Isola partnered to develop 110 GHz boards and 1.0 mm connectors. Isola formulated a high performance laminate presenting low dielectric loss. Simultaneously, Signal Microwave designed a 1.0 mm edge launch connector exhibiting low reflections. This presentation will highlight the connector design, board formulation, and testing.
Devices enabled with GPS are everywhere, and end-user demands have moved to knowing 'where I am, all the time, and what direction am I facing'. Multiple antennas feeding the same receiver can achieve that. We'll discuss different models for multi-antenna GPS testing and how to overcome many complex challenges
Mixer linearity is often the limiting factor to dynamic range in wideband microwave receivers. This talk will explain the physical origin of nonlinearity in frequency mixers, review methods to maximize linearity including circuit and diode (Si, GaAs, and GaN), and recommend mixer selection guidelines to maximize system linearity.
Modern radio-communication-systems regularly employ frequency-hopping methods to suppress interference or prevent fading. However, frequency-hopping also influences data-throughput, thus requiring quick frequency-settling. Complex test-setups were necessary to determine settling time of a frequency hop.
A new generation of signal analyzers now measures settling procedures with less effort and provides rapid results.
With the ever increasing complexity and wide band nature of new modulation schemes employed in communications systems it is more important than ever to fully understand the performance of a front end module under realistic operating conditions.
Analog Devices has developed a method of generating multiple sub-30fs jitter JESD204B Clock/SYSREF pairs using a couple standard components along with a SYSREF generation device. In addition to the 2-4x method jitter improvement over the traditional method, this method avoids SYSREF spurs on the clock signal and consumes less power.
Measuring pulse-to-pulse phase stability in modern RADAR is very important for range and velocity resolution. Very low phase noise of the local oscillator is needed to achieve the required performance. However, two-port-devices like amplifiers can deteriorate the performance.
We measure and quantify the variability of pulse parameters over time.
Modern communications, aerospace & defense, and instrumentation RF systems require multiple high performance agile RF channels that cover a wide frequency range, in a small size, with low power. Almost as important is the ability to get their design to market quickly.
This MicroApps paper will focus on a high performance, integrated, wide frequency, wide bandwidth, fast hopping, synchronized transceiver that has 2 transmitters, 2 receivers, and observation receiver along with applications surrounding it that allow a quick path to production, while not giving up on performance, size, or power.